The Bush administration?s refusal to ratify the Kyoto protocol on cutting greenhouse gases has led many to assume the treaty has been effectively scuttled. But with the Canadian parliament ratifying it in December and the Russian parliament considering ratification as well, the treaty remains alive. Russian ratification is seen as critical. As the last major industrial country (besides the U.S.) to consider the accord (the European Union and Japan have already ratified it), Russia could push the number of countries embracing the treaty past the point required for the accord to take effect. Countries accounting for 55 percent of 1990 carbon dioxide pollution levels must sign before it becomes international law.