Savage Customs

Canada is busting gay magazines at the border


| May-June 1996



The staff at Little Sister’s Book and Art Emporium, Vancouver’s only gay and lesbian bookstore, have been fighting a paradoxical battle for nearly 10 years—a battle against Canadian censorship laws that are, oddly enough, partly inspired by feminism.

Canada Customs had been regularly seizing Little Sister’s-bound shipments of U.S. gay and lesbian publications since the store opened in 1983. When the agency confiscated two issues of the U.S. gay monthly The Advocate in 1987, the bookstore and the British Columbia Civil Liberties Association (BCCLA) joined forces for a court challenge to argue that the magazines were not obscene. A year later, just two weeks before the trial was to start, Canada Customs conceded that the issues were not obscene and the case was closed. But when Little Sister’s asked for the Advocates back, Customs couldn’t comply. The magazines had already been destroyed.

What were Canada’s guardians of public morality up to? The customs officers have a legal mandate to keep hate propaganda and obscenity out of the country, but enforcement seems to come down heavily, and selectively, on alternative venues. Customs has rarely seized mainstream books or magazines en route to any of Canada’s major booksellers. (One of the few exceptions was when Salman Rushdie’s Satanic Verses was detained in 1989. After international headlines ridiculed the seizure, it took Customs just 48 hours to determine that the book did not qualify as hate literature.)

In its 13 years in operation, Little Sister’s has never faced formal obscenity charges—though they have had hundreds of shipments of books and magazines stopped at the border. Although most of these publications have eventually been released, more than a thousand books have been destroyed. One of the most controversial aspects of the seizures is that they work on the principle of “reverse onus”: If Customs decides something is obscene, it’s up to the importer to prove it isn’t. Appealing seizures is time-consuming, complicated, and expensive.

Since the 1987 trial never took place, Little Sister’s and the BCCLA struggled for seven years for a day in court. In 1994 they finally got their chance. As Cindy Filipenko writes in the Vancouver gay and lesbian biweekly Xtra West (Feb. 8, 1996), “When all was said and done, the trial had extended to 40 days, [and] incorporated 270 exhibits and the testimony of 33 witnesses. Academics, booksellers, writers, and publishers all took the stand to prove the cultural validity of gay and lesbian erotic publications.”

Thirteen months later, on January 19, 1996, British Columbia Supreme Court Justice Kenneth Smith delivered a split decision. Smith ruled that the law that allows Customs to seize, detain, and destroy material does not violate the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which protects “the freedom of thought, belief, opinion, and expression” in Canada. He declared, however, that Customs had enforced its powers in an “arbitrary and improper manner,” and he criticized the cumbersome appeal process. Based on the judgment, Little Sister’s returned to the court February 26 to demand an injunction that would keep Customs from seizing anything else until their case is heard by the Court of Appeal. Little Sister’s and the BCCLA are also applying for damages and court costs (which have already exceeded $350,000). The ruling has yet to come in.