Der Indianer: Why do 40,000 Germans spend their weekends dressed as Native Americans?

Thousands of Germans spend their weekends trying to live like Native Americans by camping in teepees and addressing themselves with Indian-sounding names. This German fascination with Native culture illuminates something about both cultures.

  • German Weekend Spent as Native American

    image by AFP / Getty Images

  • German Weekend Spent as Native American

The first thing John Blackbird learned when he was growing up on the Canadian prairies was that his people were no good. Raised primarily by a white family, Blackbird heard from friends and classmates that Natives were lazy and unemployable. Even in childhood games, nobody wanted to be the Indian. Everyone wanted to play the gallant cowboy.

Today in Germany, Blackbird is a star, a celebrity even. He’s seen as a descendant of the wild and free people of the plains—an embodiment of environmental respect. Fans routinely trail the 38-year-old Cree filmmaker on the streets. He tours the country’s military installations and schools, and is asked for opinions on everything from politics to spirituality.

Blackbird’s fame springs from a remarkable cultural phenomenon: some 40,000 German “hobbyists” who spend their weekends trying to live exactly as Indians of the North American plains did over two centuries ago. They recreate tepee encampments, dress in animal skins and furs, and forgo modern tools, using handmade bone knives to cut and prepare food. They address each other by adopted Indian-sounding names such as White Wolf. Many feel an intense spiritual link to Native myths and spirituality, and talk about “feeling” Native on the inside.

Their fascination with Native culture is due in large part to Karl May, the best-selling German author of all time. In 1892, May published the first of many books about a fictional Apache warrior named Winnetou and his German blood brother, Old Shatterhand. The two men roamed the North American plains, using their nearly superhuman powers to fight off the land-hungry government and thuggish, violent pioneers. (Fans of the stories included Albert Einstein and Adolf Hitler.) In the 1960s the duo was immortalized in five popular films, and hobbyist groups began forming across Europe. There are now more than 400 clubs in Germany alone.

Some Natives do take issue. When he first traveled to Germany, David Redbird Baker, an Ojibwe, thought adults playing cowboys and Indians were cute. But when the hobbyists began staging sacred ceremonies like ghost and sun dances and sweat lodges, Baker was offended.

“They take the social and religious ceremonies and change them beyond recognition,” says Baker, who believes that hobbyists, in claiming the right to improvise on the most sacred rituals, have begun to develop a sense of ownership over Native culture. They’ve held dances where anyone in modern dress is barred from attending—even visiting Natives. They buy sacred items like eagle feathers and add them to their regalia. They’ve even allowed women to dance during their “moon time,” which is, according to Baker, the equivalent of a cardinal sin.

6/5/2019 1:47:24 PM

Interesting article. I too would be very offended, as there is a huge difference between honoring another culture and appropriating it and trying to make it your own. It's also important to note that every single one of our Tribal Nations are as succinctly culturally different, as we are diverse in ceremonies, traditional practices, language, etc., etc. Although there are some commonalities, we are each rich in our own cultural ways and spirituality. To emulate us does not necessarily mean you are honoring us and many times when this is done - it is done form a historical perspective, rather than acknowledging we are a contemporary people, aside from our daily cultural lives, we also work, go to the gym, drive, go to school, etc., much like our mainstream counterparts. Aside Note: If you are seeking unique Native American - American Indian Designed Inspired Gifts, Exclusive Native Print Womens Heels, Shoes, Boots, Jewelry...and More...Go to:, wholly Native American, American Indian Owned & Operated.

2/26/2018 8:09:17 PM

Dale Vieweger I have a true colour photo of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show Native troupe - the only one in existence. It was taken by my Grandfather Hugo Viewegar on July 23rd 1914, using the Lumiere Bros. Autochrome process. Authenticated by credible experts in Canada and abroad. The Native attire is real, handmade, and it shows their pride in who they are and what they represent. Tremendous historical value. And Yes! you can now own and enjoy your own limited edition print on giclee canvas. Visit our site at . It's all there - history, testimonials, biography, gallery etc. Thank you, Dale Vieweger, director of the Viewegar Foundation.

2/26/2018 6:58:02 PM

Dale Vieweger I have a TRUE authentic Lumiere Autochrome colour photo taken on July 23rd 1914 by my Grandfather Hugo Viewegar, of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show Indian Troupe. Their attire is authentic, hand made, and their pride is very apparent. Beautiful photo with tremendous historical value. The real thing, authenticated by credible experts nation wide and abroad, showing how they really dressed at the time, and yes! you can own one. Featured on my website at with history, testimonials etc. Thanks for viewing. Dale Vieweger

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